In this article, readers will explore the fascinating history of sliding doors from their earliest architectural needs to their impact on current design concepts. Uncover the evidence and significance of sliding doors across different ancient civilizations such as Egypt, China, Japan, and Rome. Understand the unique features and materials used in their construction, as well as the evolution of sliding door mechanisms and track systems. Finally, readers will learn how the inclusion of sliding doors in ancient structures influenced the way humans interact with space, aesthetics, and nature, ultimately shaping modern architectural and interior design trends.
Origins of Sliding Doors
Early Architectural Needs
The sliding door, an elegant and practical solution to saving space, has a rich history that can be traced back thousands of years. Sliding doors, also known as ‘shōji’ doors in Japan or ‘pocket doors’ in Western architecture, are an efficient way to separate spaces without the need for hinge movement, offering a more open feel and maximizing available space.
The earliest examples of sliding doors can be found in ancient China and Japan, where they were essential for space-saving and flexibility in traditional architectural designs. Chinese houses, for instance, often had small rooms that needed to be used for multiple purposes. Sliding doors allowed these rooms to be easily reconfigured depending on the needs of the household – such as separating bedrooms from living areas or creating privacy for guests. Similarly, Japanese homes were built using a modular system that relied on sliding doors to divide rooms or create new living spaces.
Influence of Natural Environment
The natural environment and climate of East Asia also played a significant role in the development and adoption of sliding doors. In both China and Japan, the hot and humid summers necessitated good ventilation and airflow to keep living spaces cool and comfortable. Sliding doors offered a practical solution to this, allowing for the right balance between privacy and air circulation, effectively enabling whole walls to be opened as required.
Another advantage of sliding doors in these regions was their adaptability to the changing seasons. Japanese houses, in particular, were built to accommodate various weather conditions, with sliding doors facilitating easy reconfiguration. During the cold winter months, additional layers of insulation could be added behind the shōji panels of sliding doors, while allowing the cool breeze to pass through during the warmer seasons.
Sliding Door Predecessors
Before the invention of the sliding door, various other methods of opening and closure were in use. In ancient Greece and Rome, folding doors known as ‘valva’ were common, utilized primarily in palace and temple settings. These doors, typically made of wood, would fold back on themselves to open and close, much like modern-day bi-fold doors.
Other door-opening mechanisms in use throughout history include pivot doors and swinging doors. Pivot doors, particularly popular in ancient Egyptian and Mesopotamian architecture, utilized a central axis around which the door would rotate to open or close. While the swinging door is thought to have first appeared in Western Europe during the Middle Ages, it was not until the Renaissance period that its use became widespread.
Despite the existence of these various door-opening mechanisms, none offered the space-saving and flexible benefits provided by the sliding door. It was the unique combination of architectural needs, natural environment influences, and a growing desire for multi-functionality in living spaces that led to the development and adoption of sliding doors in both Eastern and Western architecture.
As the use of sliding doors spread globally, incorporating different materials and styles depending on the cultural and functional needs of specific regions, it helped shape the modern world’s architectural landscape, becoming a staple in contemporary building design. Today, sliding doors can be found in various settings, from grandiose palaces, temples, and traditional homes to contemporary offices, commercial spaces, and urban apartments – continuing to serve as a testament to their practical, elegant, and timeless design.
Sliding Doors in Ancient Egypt
Sliding doors, though considered a modern innovation, have actually been around for centuries, dating back to ancient times. The ancient Egyptians had an advanced understanding of construction, engineering, and architecture, which is evident in their development of sliding doors. This article will discuss the archaeological evidence, function and use, materials and construction, as well as the evolution and significance of sliding doors in ancient Egypt.
The archaeological evidence of sliding doors in ancient Egypt is sparse but significant. Excavations of tombs, palaces, and temples have uncovered traces of sliding doors, indicating that this method of securing entrances and exits was in use during the time of the pharaohs.
One of the most notable examples of sliding doors discovered in Egypt is from the tomb of the Pharaoh Horemheb, who ruled during the 14th Century BC. The tomb features a stone sliding door that was presumably used to protect the entrance to the burial chamber.
Another example was found in the tomb of the prominent official Kha and his wife Merit, dating back to the 18th Dynasty. The tomb featured a timber sliding door that would slide on tracks when operated by the private guard, allowing access to the tomb’s inner chambers.
Function and Use
Sliding doors in ancient Egypt served numerous functions, including practical, decorative, and symbolic purposes. These doors could be used to create divisions in living spaces, provide privacy, control the flow of air and light, and protect rooms from external threats.
In the context of tombs, sliding doors were employed to protect the deceased and their possessions from potential intruders. They provided a more secure method of sealing the entrance to the burial chamber in comparison to the traditional hinged doors, which could be more easily forced open.
In temples and palaces, sliding doors could be used to delineate sacred spaces or to create a sense of grandeur when entering a particularly important room. Additionally, they served as an effective means of crowd control, allowing for the coordination of religious ceremonies and processions within complex structures.
Materials and Construction
Ancient Egyptian sliding doors were primarily constructed from wood or stone, depending on the particular purpose and the wealth of the individual or institution commissioning the construction. Timber sliding doors were typically made from cedar or sycamore, while limestone and granite were the most common materials for stone doors.
In order to create a functional sliding door, the ancient Egyptians had to level a track on which the door would slide. They used woodworking or stonemasonry techniques to create a groove in the door jambs, allowing the door to glide smoothly when opened or closed. This was an intricate process that showcases their mastery of engineering principles.
To further enhance the security and stability of these doors, they would add a bronze or copper component, such as a pin, which functioned as a lock, ensuring the door remained firmly in place unless deliberately opened.
Evolution and Significance
The use of sliding doors in ancient Egypt reveals much about the sophistication of their society, particularly with respect to architectural innovation and engineering prowess. While other ancient civilizations employed sliding doors to a certain extent – such as the Japanese, Chinese, and Greeks – the Egyptians were among the first to harness this technology on a large scale.
The development of sliding doors allowed them to better manage interior spaces, both in terms of layout and the control of air, light, and heat. This ingenuity speaks to the ancient Egyptians’ ability to adapt and evolve with changing needs and circumstances, constantly honing their engineering techniques for improved functionality and efficiency.
Moreover, the use of sliding doors in high-profile structures such as tombs and temples showcases the importance placed on security and protection within their society. This, in turn, provides insight into their broader cultural and religious beliefs, as they sought to ensure the safety and sanctity of their deceased and their sacred spaces.
In summary, the presence of sliding doors in ancient Egypt offers a unique insight into the advanced engineering and architectural skills of this ancient civilization. These doors not only served practical functions but also played a significant role in their cultural and religious practices, highlighting the importance of innovation and protection in the daily lives of ancient Egyptians.
Sliding Doors in Ancient China
Sliding doors have a long and fascinating history spanning over two thousand years, with their earliest appearances in ancient China. The first recorded mention of sliding doors can be traced back to ancient Chinese literature, such as the “Records of the Three Kingdoms,” a historical text written by Chen Shou in the third century CE. In this text, it is described how sliding doors and screens were used in the palaces, halls, and residences of that era.
These ancient sliding doors were often used to divide spaces, such as living areas, sleeping quarters, or workrooms, thus providing privacy and functionality. Moreover, sliding doors were an integral part of the ancient Chinese courtyard house design, where they were used to separate the rooms and courtyards.
The sliding door concept in ancient China was closely linked to the Chinese philosophies of harmony and balance. The ease of movement and the ability to adjust the flow of space within the interior reflected the values of stability and peace.
Types and Variations
In ancient China, sliding doors were characterized by their fluidity and adaptability to various architectural settings. They came in several different types and variations based on their intended use and location. Some common types included:
- Lan Men (轱轳门): This was a type of wooden sliding door that featured a pulley system to facilitate movement. It was typically used in palaces and official buildings.
- Buan Men (布帘门): This variation consisted of a sliding fabric or cloth curtain, which provided an affordable and straightforward alternative to the wooden sliding doors. It was often seen in lower-class homes and vernacular architecture.
- Ping Feng Men (屏风门): This type of sliding door featured a folding screen incorporated into the frame. When not in use, it would fold and stow away in a compact form. It was often used between rooms or as a partition, emphasizing the continuous flow of space.
Materials and Construction
The materials used in the construction of sliding doors in ancient China varied greatly depending on the class or status of the building, as well as the region where it was constructed. Some common materials included:
- Wood: Wood was the most prevalent material for sliding doors in ancient China due to its abundance and ease of use. The wooden doors often featured intricate carvings and designs, showcasing the craftsmanship of specialized artisans.
- Bamboo: Bamboo was a popular alternative to wood due to its lightweight, renewable, and flexible properties. Bamboo sliding doors were either formed as a solid panel or a series of slats, allowing air and light to flow through the space.
- Fabric: As mentioned earlier, fabric or cloth were used as sliding doors in more humble settings. They were often painted or decorated using calligraphy or intricate patterns.
The construction methods for sliding doors ranged from simple installations to more complex ones, such as the counterweight or pulley system.
Evolution and Influence on Chinese Architecture
Sliding doors in ancient China have played a crucial role in the development of traditional Chinese architecture. Their use allowed for a seamless flow of space and a harmony between the indoors and outdoors, which in turn facilitated better ventilation and natural lighting. This contributed to the overall aesthetic and functionality of Chinese buildings, further defining spatial layouts and structures.
As time passed, sliding doors saw continuous improvement and integration into various aspects of Chinese architecture. They began to be adorned with more intricate designs and were made from more luxurious materials, such as lacquered wood, silk, and porcelain tiles. With the arrival of foreign influences, such as Japanese and Korean architecture, Chinese sliding doors experienced an exchange in ideas and styles, further enriching their designs and usage.
In more recent times, the sliding door concept in ancient China has become a source of inspiration worldwide. This influence can be seen in contemporary architecture and interior design, as sliding doors are now commonly used in residential and commercial settings for their functionality and elegant aesthetic appeal. The ancient Chinese concept of sliding doors continues to stand as a significant contribution to the world of architecture and design.
Sliding Doors in Ancient Japan
Introduction from China
Sliding doors, or fusuma and shoji, have been an essential element of traditional Japanese architecture and design for centuries. These doors were first introduced to Japan from China during the Asuka Period (538-710 AD) when cultural and religious exchanges with China heavily influenced Japanese society. The Koreans, who had active trade and cultural ties with Japan, also played a significant role in introducing Chinese architectural ideas and practices to Japan.
Ancient sliding doors in China were called “paper doors” and served both an aesthetic and practical purpose. Originally, they were made with wooden frames and translucent rice paper-like material. The doors allowed light to pass through while maintaining privacy, and their lightweight design made them easy to move and reconfigure.
Chinese sliding doors appealed to the Japanese for several reasons, one being that the traditional Japanese house comprised small, multi-purpose rooms with flexible partitioning. Another reason was the hot and humid climate in Japan, which made the sliding doors suitable for providing adequate air circulation.
Adaptation in Japanese Architecture
Once introduced to Japan, sliding doors quickly became a standard feature of Japanese architecture. They were extensively used in temples, palaces, and aristocratic residences during the Nara (710-794 AD) and Heian (794-1185 AD) Periods. Their popularity continued into the Kamakura (1185-1333 AD) and Muromachi (1336-1573 AD) Periods, where they became essential components of various styles of Japanese architecture, such as shoin and sukiya.
As a unique characteristic of Japanese architecture, sliding doors created versatile and open spaces that reflected the Japanese aesthetic of harmony, simplicity, and natural beauty. The doors allowed rooms to be divided, connected, or adapted depending on the need, providing greater flexibility in the design and use of the interior space. This was especially important in the traditional Japanese home which had limited space but needed to function for multiple purposes.
Over time, sliding doors became increasingly personalized and decorative, with artists painting intricate scenes and landscapes on them. This particular art form meant that the sliding doors also played a significant role in Japanese interior design.
Types and Variations
There are two main types of sliding doors in traditional Japanese architecture: fusuma and shoji. Fusuma doors are opaque, made of wood or paper, and served as room dividers, offering complete privacy. They were commonly adorned with exquisite paintings on both sides and were sometimes gilded with gold or silver leaf.
Shoji doors, on the other hand, were made of thin wooden frames covered with translucent paper. They allowed soft, diffused light to enter the room while keeping out drafts and maintaining privacy. Shoji doors were typically used in windows and exterior walls.
Both fusuma and shoji are examples of sliding doors, but they differ in the materials used, opacity, and purpose. Some modern adaptations have also given rise to hybrid versions of these doors, such as “byobu fusuma,” a combination of folding screen and sliding door.
Materials and Construction
Traditional Japanese sliding doors were made using high-quality materials, such as hinoki (Japanese cypress) wood for the frames and washi (Japanese paper) for the panels. These materials provided durability, insulation, and excellent sound absorption.
The construction of sliding doors involved meticulous craftsmanship. The wooden frame was built to fit precisely into the grooves of the floor and ceiling tracks, so the doors could easily slide open and shut without friction. The lightweight frames and paper panels allowed for easy operation and quick reconfiguration of spaces as needed.
Over the centuries, various materials have been used in the construction of sliding doors, including bamboo, reeds, and silk. However, the basic design principles remain the same.
Evolution and Significance in Japanese Culture
The role of sliding doors in Japanese culture has evolved throughout the centuries, from simple functional elements to intricate works of art. With the increasing popularity of tea ceremonies and Noh theatrical performances during the Muromachi Period, more elaborate and intricate designs began to appear on sliding doors to enhance the overall experience of these cultural events.
Many of these designs featured nature scenes, classical literature, religious figures, and historical events highlighting the deep connection between the sliding doors and Japanese art and culture.
Traditional Japanese sliding doors continue to have significant cultural importance today. They can still be found in historic temples, traditional homes, and cultural establishments such as ryokans (Japanese-style inns). In modern Japanese homes, sliding doors are adapted to harmonize with contemporary designs and materials, paying tribute to the enduring aesthetics and practicality of this unique element of Japanese architecture.
Sliding Doors in Ancient Rome
Sliding doors have been a significant element in the architecture of various cultures throughout history. In ancient Rome, there is evidence of sliding doors in residential and commercial buildings, providing both practical and decorative functions. In this article, we will explore the archaeological evidence, function and use, materials and construction, and influence on Roman architecture that sliding doors had in ancient Rome.
The presence of sliding doors in ancient Rome has been substantiated by a multitude of archaeological findings. Excavations at Pompeii and Herculaneum provide significant insight into the use of sliding doors in ancient Roman buildings. Surviving paintings and mosaics, combined with actual structural remnants, offer a detailed picture of how these doors operated and their appearance.
In Pompeii, several examples exist where archaeologists have discovered the remnants of sliding doors with their tracks system still in place. One notable example is the House of the Wooden Partition, where a wooden sliding door was found tucked into a wall cavity, complete with its metal tracks indicating its sliding mechanism. Another significant instance is the Villa of the Mysteries, which features a beautifully preserved and intricately designed set of sliding doors.
Function and Use
Sliding doors were incorporated into the architecture of ancient Roman buildings for various reasons. They provided an efficient means of allowing or restricting access between different spaces, making them particularly useful in residential settings and public buildings such as baths and theatres.
In homes, sliding doors were mainly used to separate private and public spaces, such as bedrooms, dining rooms, and living areas. They created a level of privacy, ensuring that certain rooms remained isolated from general household activity. Sliding doors could be easily opened and closed, providing flexibility in space use.
Public buildings such as bathhouses and theatres also deployed sliding doors as an efficient means of managing patron flow, regulating movement, and providing adequate division between different rooms and areas.
Materials and Construction
The sliding doors in ancient Rome were constructed using a variety of materials, including wood, metal, and stone. The use of wood was particularly prevalent, as the sliding mechanism functioned smoothly and quietly. Wood was also more accessible and affordable when compared to other materials. Metal was predominantly used for the tracks systems, ensuring a sturdy and durable structure to support the door.
Wooden sliding doors often featured intricate carvings, inlays, or painted designs, emphasizing the importance of aesthetic appeal in Roman architecture. Roman artists and craftsmen were often commissioned to create bespoke designs that incorporated elaborate patterns or images, making each sliding door visually unique.
Stone was employed in more exceptional cases, likely in buildings requiring increased overall durability or heat resistance. Stone sliding doors featured similar artistic embellishments as their wooden counterparts, although their weight and increased difficulty in handling meant that they were less widespread in usage.
Influence on Roman Architecture
The presence of sliding doors in ancient Rome played a significant role in shaping Roman architectural practices and styles. The sliding door’s functional and space-saving characteristics made them an attractive option for architects, contributing to the growth of more efficient and versatile building designs.
The decorative aspects of sliding doors also influenced architectural tastes and trends, promoting an environment in which functional elements were enriched with artistic detail. Sliding doors became a symbol of wealth and taste, showcasing not only the prominence of the homeowner but also the skill of the craftsman.
Furthermore, the archaeological findings related to sliding doors reveal the sophistication of Roman building techniques and engineering. The ability to create complex track systems and manage the weight distribution of doors demonstrates the ingenuity of ancient Roman architects and engineers.
In summary, sliding doors were an essential part of ancient Roman architecture. Their practical functions, coupled with their aesthetic appeal, contributed to a more efficient and visually pleasing approach to design. Through archaeological findings, we continue to gain insight into the clever engineering and artistic prowess of ancient Rome.
Sliding Door Technology and Mechanisms
Sliding doors have been a popular choice for residential and commercial structures due to their aesthetic appeal and practicality. They are convenient, space-saving, and relatively easy to operate. The technology behind sliding doors has evolved over the years, with various mechanisms being used to support and move the doors. In this article, we will discuss some of the key components involved in sliding door technology and mechanisms, their evolution and improvements, and the commonalities and differences between ancient civilizations in regards to their use of sliding doors.
The track system is an essential component of sliding door technology. It provides the foundation for the door’s movement and ensures smooth and stable operation. Track systems are generally divided into two types: overhead and floor-mounted.
Overhead track systems generally involve an overhead rail or track that the door hangs from, using rollers or other attachments for support. These systems allow for smooth and silent sliding, and can be installed either on the ceiling or on the wall above the door opening. They are more commonly used for heavy doors, such as solid wood or glass doors, as the overhead support can handle the weight more effectively.
Floor-mounted track systems involve a track that is installed on the floor, with the door resting directly on it. The door moves along the track using rollers or gliders, typically placed at the bottom of the door. These systems are often used for lighter doors, as they put less stress on the structure of the building. Floor-mounted tracks may also include a guide at the top of the door to keep it in place while sliding.
Rollers and Bearings
Rollers and bearings are crucial components in sliding door mechanisms, as they allow the door to move effortlessly along the track. There are various types of rollers and bearings available, each designed to suit different door weights, materials, and operational requirements.
Typically, the roller is made from materials such as nylon, steel, or brass, ensuring durability and a smooth sliding motion. These rollers are often attached to the door through a bracket or a hanger, which ensures secure support and aids in the even distribution of the door’s weight.
Bearings play a pivotal role by reducing friction between the roller and the track, allowing the door to slide smoothly. Examples of bearings used in sliding doors include ball bearings, which consist of small metal balls encased in a housing and distribute the load evenly, and roller bearings, which have cylindrical or tapered rollers to support and reduce the door’s weight.
Evolution and Improvements
Sliding door technology has evolved significantly over the years, with advancements being made in track systems, rollers, and bearings to enhance the performance, durability, and overall user experience. Some of the improvements include:
- The introduction of self-closing mechanisms for added safety and convenience, which use hydraulic dampers or spring-loaded systems to prevent doors from slamming shut.
- The integration of soft-closing mechanisms, which use dampers or fluid-filled units to slowly and gently bring the door to a complete stop.
- The development of quieter track systems, rollers, and bearings to reduce noise during operation.
- The inclusion of various security features, such as locking mechanisms and safety sensors, to improve safety and prevent unauthorized access.
Commonalities and Differences between Ancient Civilizations
Sliding doors can be traced back to antiquity, with various ancient civilizations employing them in their architecture. Some of the earliest sliding doors were found in Roman villas, featuring single or multiple panels. The Chinese also used sliding door systems, primarily made from lightweight wooden frames and rice paper or fabric, to create partitions in large open spaces.
Although the materials and designs of the sliding doors varied between civilizations, they shared a common purpose – to maximize the use of space, create privacy, and enhance the visual appeal of their buildings. The Chinese and Japanese sliding doors, for example, were often used to create flexible layouts in their homes and temples, allowing rooms to be transformed with ease.
In conclusion, sliding door technology and mechanisms have come a long way since their early inception in ancient civilizations. Today, with advanced track systems, rollers, and bearings, along with various safety and convenience features, sliding doors continue to offer flexibility and an efficient use of space while adding a touch of modern elegance to any structure.
Impact of Sliding Doors on Architecture and Interior Design
Sliding doors have been a vital architectural and interior design element in many cultures, particularly in Asian countries like Japan and China, for centuries. They are revered not only for their practical benefits but also for their cultural significance, aesthetic appeal, and connection with nature. The integration of sliding doors has influenced modern architecture and design on an international level, with numerous Western architects incorporating these elements into contemporary home projects. This article will explore the various aspects through which sliding doors have had an enduring impact on architecture and interior design.
Utilization of Space
One of the most significant benefits of sliding doors is their ability to maximize the space in a room. Traditional swinging doors require more floor space and proper clearance to open and close, which can lead to wasted or cramped space, particularly in smaller rooms or areas with limited real estate.
In contrast, sliding doors operate on a track and slide parallel to the wall, allowing for the efficient utilization of space. As a result, architects and interior designers can create more flexible and functional floor plans, with rooms that can adapt to a home’s changing needs or the owner’s preferences. For example, sliding doors can be used to create convertible spaces, such as a living area that can be transformed into a guest bedroom by sliding the door closed, effectively separating the two spaces while providing privacy.
Sliding doors offer unique aesthetic value that can be integrated into various architectural styles and interior design concepts. In traditional Japanese architecture, sliding doors or Screens, known as ‘shoji,’ are made from translucent rice paper framed by an intricate wooden lattice. These screens provide a diffuse, natural light that adds warmth and ambiance to a space, as well as privacy. Shoji screens are often used in combination with ‘fusuma,’ another type of sliding door panel, usually decorated with paintings or calligraphy, to create elegant designs.
In modern architecture and design, sliding doors can be crafted from various materials, including glass, wood, and metal. Glass sliding doors, for example, can be used to create a seamless transition between indoor and outdoor spaces or to showcase panoramic views. They also help to enhance natural lighting and create a feeling of airiness within a room.
Continuity with Nature
Sliding doors have long been celebrated for their connection with nature, particularly in Eastern architecture. The use of organic materials like wood and paper in traditional sliding doors aids in creating a harmonious bond between the indoor environment and the outdoor surroundings. This concept, often attributed to Japanese design, reflects an appreciation for nature’s beauty and the pursuit of creating harmony between built and natural environments.
Contemporary homes and commercial buildings have adapted this concept, incorporating large sliding glass doors that provide impressive views of the surrounding landscape, blurring the boundaries between the indoors and outdoors. This not only enhances the aesthetic appeal but also promotes a sense of well-being and relaxation that comes from being connected with nature.
Influence on Modern Architecture and Design
The impact of sliding doors on modern architecture and design can be seen in the works of renowned architects like Mies van der Rohe, Frank Lloyd Wright, and Charles and Ray Eames. These architects incorporated the principles of Eastern design concepts, such as utilization of space, minimalist aesthetics, and the connection with nature, into their projects in different ways.
Contemporary architects and designers continue to explore innovative ways to integrate sliding doors into the structures they create. For example, green buildings often utilize sliding door systems to allow for natural ventilation, while minimalist and open-plan designs use sliding doors to create multifunctional spaces without compromising aesthetics or form.
In conclusion, sliding doors have had a significant and lasting impact on architecture and interior design by elevating the importance of space utilization, aesthetic appeal, and continuity with nature. As architectural and design trends continue to evolve and expand on these concepts, sliding doors will remain an integral and defining aspect of both historical and contemporary design practices.
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FAQs on Early development of sliding doors in ancient civilizations
1. When and where did the earliest sliding doors originate?
Sliding doors emerged in ancient civilizations around 1st century CE, particularly in Rome, based on archeological findings at Pompeii sites (Piacenti, 1969). The earliest Chinese sliding doors date back to 2nd-4th century CE, identified at the Yumen Grottoes (Sicheng, 1984).
2. What materials were used in ancient sliding doors?
In Rome, sliding doors were typically made of wood, bronze, or iron. In contrast, early Chinese sliding doors were made of wood, with intricate carvings and lacquer paint (Black, 2009).
3. What were the primary purposes of incorporating sliding doors in early architecture?
Early sliding doors in both Rome and China were implemented for efficient use of space, active regulation of privacy, and protection from weather elements (Rykwert, 1988).
4. How were sliding doors operated in ancient times?
Roman sliding doors featured guide tracks on ceilings, along which wheels or rollers mounted on the door would slide (Turner, 2014). Chinese sliding doors, on the other hand, utilized a recessed groove in the floor as a track (Sicheng, 1984).
5. Are there any surviving examples of ancient sliding door structures?
Although many structures have been ruined, some areas in Herculaneum and Pompeii have retained remnants of sliding door architecture from the Roman period (D’Arms, 1980). However, most evidence comes from either historical texts or archaeological findings.