In this comprehensive article about double glazed windows, readers will learn the basics of double glazing, its components, functionality, and the different types of gases used. The article then delves into the energy efficiency, thermal insulation properties, and other benefits of double glazing, as well as comparisons with traditional windows. Furthermore, the installation process, challenges, and maintenance aspects of double glazed windows will be discussed. Finally, additional advantages such as noise reduction, increased property value, and enhanced security features will also be covered.
The Basics of Double Glazed Windows
Double-glazed windows, also known as insulated glazing, is a popular type of energy-efficient window that consists of two layers of glass separated by a spacer. It is designed to reduce heat loss, condensation, and outside noise in homes and commercial buildings. This article will focus on the components and functionality of double-glazed windows, how double glazing works, and the types of gases used in double glazing.
Components and Functionality
Double-glazed windows consist of several crucial components designed to work together to maximize energy efficiency and comfort. These components are:
- Two panes of glass: Double-glazed windows have two layers of glass, positioned parallel to each other. The space between the glass layers is filled with an insulating gas or air, which provides an effective barrier against heat transfer and sound transmission.
- Spacer: A spacer is used to maintain the separation between the two glass panes. It is usually made of aluminum, stainless steel, or another low-conductivity material. Spacers contain a desiccant material, which absorbs any moisture in the space between the glass panes, preventing condensation buildup.
- Frame: The frame is the outer structure that holds the entire double-glazed window together. It can be made from a variety of materials, including uPVC, aluminum, wood, or composite materials. The frame material can impact the thermal performance and durability of the window.
- Sealant: Double-glazed windows are sealed at the perimeter with a sealant to ensure that the space between the glass panes remains airtight. This prevents the gas or air filling from leaking out and external moisture or contaminants from entering the space.
- Insulating Gas: The space between the glass panes is filled with an insulating gas or air, which helps to reduce heat transfer and increase thermal efficiency. Common gases used in double glazing include argon, krypton, and xenon.
The primary function of double-glazed windows is to provide improved energy efficiency by reducing heat loss in colder months and heat gain in warmer months. This ultimately helps to maintain comfortable indoor temperatures and reduce the reliance on heating and cooling systems, leading to lower energy bills.
How Double Glazing Works
Double glazing works by creating a barrier between the inside and outside environment, which slows down the transfer of heat, thereby maintaining a consistent and comfortable internal temperature.
The two glass layers in double glazing have low-emissivity (Low-E) coatings on their inner surfaces. Low-E coatings are microscopically thin layers of metal or metallic oxide that minimize the amount of ultraviolet and infrared light entering a building while still allowing visible light to pass through. Thus, it reduces heat transfer and helps maintain a comfortable indoor environment.
The insulating gas or air between the glass panes works as an additional barrier to reduce heat transfer further. They are less conductive than single-pane windows, which means they slow down the transfer of heat from the warmer side of the window to the cooler side. The thicker the gas layer, the more effective the insulation will be.
Additionally, double glazing provides an extra layer of sound insulation. Sound transmission is significantly reduced due to the two layers of glass and the airspace between them, making homes and offices in noisy areas more comfortable.
Types of Gases Used in Double Glazing
The gas selected for filling the space between the glass panes in a double-glazed window significantly impacts the insulating properties and energy efficiency of the window. Three primary gases are used in double glazed windows:
- Argon: Argon is the most commonly used gas in double glazing due to its excellent thermal performance and affordability. It is a colorless, odorless, inert gas that is about 34% denser than air, making it highly effective at reducing heat transfer between the glass panes.
- Krypton: Krypton has better insulating properties than argon, but it is more expensive. It is also a colorless, odorless, and inert gas, but it is about 57% denser than air, which makes it even more effective at reducing heat transfer. Krypton is often used in situations where the spacer between the glass panes is narrow, such as in triple-glazed windows.
- Xenon: Xenon is the most expensive and least commonly used of the three gases. It has excellent insulating properties, being about 125% denser than air. However, due to its high cost, it is mainly reserved for specialty applications where high levels of insulation are required.
Ultimately, the type of gas used in a double-glazed window depends on factors such as budget, space requirements, and desired thermal performance. Each gas provides different levels of insulation, and homeowners will need to weigh the advantages and disadvantages of each when selecting the best option for their specific needs.
Energy Efficiency and Double Glazed Windows
Double glazed windows have gained popularity in recent years because of their energy efficiency and ability to reduce heat transfer between the outdoor and indoor environment. These windows provide cost savings through reduced energy consumption and increased thermal comfort. This article will discuss the different aspects that make double glazed windows energy efficient such as their thermal insulation properties, their ability to reduce heat transfer, their influence on indoor temperature stability, and the significance of U-values and energy ratings.
Thermal Insulation Properties
One of the key features that make double glazed windows energy efficient is their superior thermal insulation properties. Double glazed windows consist of two panes of glass separated by a space filled with an insulating gas (usually argon or krypton) or a vacuum. The gap between the glass panes serves as an insulator, reducing heat transfer and improving the thermal performance of the window.
The inner and outer surfaces of the glass panes have low emissivity (low-e) coatings that reflect heat back into the room. This means that during the colder months, heat generated inside your home stays inside, reducing the need for additional heating, and ultimately saving energy costs. Similarly, during warmer months, the low-e coatings also minimize the heat entering your home by reflecting the sun’s heat back outdoors.
It is worth noting that the thermal insulation properties of double glazed windows are not solely reliant on the glass panes themselves, but also on the window frames. Insulating materials, such as PVC or timber, can further enhance the overall thermal performance of the window.
Reducing Heat Transfer
One of the main objectives of an energy-efficient window is to minimize heat transfer. The design, materials used, and the construction of double glazed windows all work together to achieve this goal. As already mentioned, the insulating space between the glass panes and the low-e coatings on the inner and outer surfaces of the glass contribute significantly to reducing heat transfer.
Additionally, double glazed windows function as noise barriers, reducing outdoor noise pollution and providing a more comfortable indoor environment. This added benefit of improved acoustic insulation is directly linked to the reduced heat transfer achieved by these windows, as both heat and sound are forms of energy.
Influence on Indoor Temperature Stability
By using double glazed windows, homeowners can achieve a more stable indoor temperature. Due to their insulating properties, these windows prevent outdoor temperature fluctuations from affecting the indoor climate. This results in more consistent, comfortable living spaces, with less need for air conditioning and heating systems to constantly adjust.
A stable indoor temperature not only enhances occupant comfort but also promotes a healthier indoor environment by reducing temperature-related issues such as condensation and mold growth. Furthermore, a stable indoor temperature decreases the strain on heating, ventilating, and air conditioning systems, therefore extending their lifespan and reducing maintenance costs.
U-Values and Energy Ratings
When evaluating the energy efficiency of double glazed windows, it’s important to consider their U-value and energy rating. The U-value is a measure of the heat transfer rate through a window, with lower values indicating better insulation and energy performance. It is expressed in watts per square meter Kelvin (W/m²K) and is typically found on the window label.
The energy rating of a window is an evaluation of its overall energy efficiency, factoring in U-values, solar heat gain coefficients (SHGCs), visual light transmittance (VT), and air leakage rates. Window energy ratings are often provided as an A+ to G scale, with A+ being the most energy efficient and G the least. Energy-rated windows have labels that display their performance, helping homeowners make informed choices when selecting windows that provide optimal energy efficiency for their homes.
In conclusion, double glazed windows have a multitude of energy efficiency benefits, such as the superior thermal insulation properties, minimized heat transfer, improved indoor temperature stability, and comprehensive energy rating systems. If you are planning a renovation or building a new home, it’s worth considering the energy-saving benefits of double glazed windows to enhance occupants’ comfort levels and contribute to a more sustainable environment.
Benefits of Double Glazing for Energy Consumption and Costs
Double glazing is an energy-efficient alternative to single glazing that uses two panes of glass separated by a space filled with an insulating material. The insulating space can be filled with either air or an inert gas like argon, which can significantly slow down heat transfer between the indoors and outdoors, leading to reduced energy consumption and costs. In this article, we will discuss the various benefits of double glazing for energy consumption and costs, focusing on decreased energy usage, reduced heating and cooling expenses, lower carbon footprint, and improved home energy performance certificates (EPC).
Decreased Energy Usage
One of the main benefits of double glazing is that it helps to reduce energy consumption, which is crucial for homeowners looking to cut down on their utility bills or live more sustainably. Due to the insulation provided by the two panes of glass and the gas or air-filled space in between, double-glazed windows limit the transfer of heat between the interior and the exterior of the home.
During the colder months, the insulation provided by double glazing helps to keep heat inside the home, reducing the need for artificial heating. Conversely, during the warmer months, the double glazing prevents heat from entering, reducing the dependence on air conditioning systems. By providing effective insulation, double glazing helps to maintain a more constant indoor temperature, which results in a reduced need for heating and cooling systems and, consequently, lower energy consumption.
Reduced Heating and Cooling Expenses
The significant reduction in energy consumption brought about by double glazing translates to a decrease in heating and cooling expenses. With double-glaze windows installed, homeowners can expect to see savings on their utility bills as they no longer need to rely as heavily on their heating and cooling systems to maintain a comfortable indoor temperature.
The specific amount of money that can be saved will vary depending on factors such as the size of the home, the quality of the double glazing, and the local climate. However, homeowners who invest in double-glazed windows can typically expect to see a return on their investment in the form of reduced energy bills.
Lower Carbon Footprint
Another significant advantage of double glazing related to energy consumption and costs is its ability to reduce a home’s carbon footprint. By consuming less energy to maintain a stable indoor temperature, double-glazed windows are more environmentally friendly than their single-glazed counterparts.
As energy production is one of the largest contributors to greenhouse gas emissions, properties with double glazing are helping to reduce the demand for energy, which ultimately leads to a decline in the amount of greenhouse gas emissions produced. As a result, adopting double glazing in a home or building project not only saves on energy costs but also helps to minimize the environmental impact of the structure.
Improved Home Energy Performance Certificates (EPC)
In many countries, a home’s energy efficiency is assessed and rated using an Energy Performance Certificate (EPC). An EPC provides an energy efficiency rating that ranges from A (most efficient) to G (least efficient) and is typically required when a property is being rented or sold.
Double-glazed windows can help to improve a home’s EPC rating due to their superior insulation properties, resulting in reduced energy consumption and a more energy-efficient home. An improved EPC rating can increase the value of a property, as buyers and renters are increasingly looking for energy-efficient homes that not only provide cost savings for heating and cooling but also help to reduce their environmental impact.
In summary, double glazing offers numerous benefits for energy consumption and costs, including decreased energy usage, reduced heating and cooling expenses, a lower carbon footprint, and improved home energy performance certificates. By investing in double-glazed windows, homeowners can enjoy increased energy efficiency, reduced energy expenses, environmental benefits, and potentially enhanced property value.
Comparing Double Glazed Windows to Traditional Windows
When it comes to the efficiency of windows, double glazed windows have become the standard choice for homeowners. This is because they offer a significant improvement in energy efficiency and other benefits compared to traditional windows. In this article, we will compare double glazed windows to traditional windows, discuss their energy efficiency difference, costs, and payback considerations. We will also look into triple glazing as another option for those seeking even better performance.
Energy Efficiency Differences
Traditional windows typically consist of a single pane of glass that does not provide much insulation. Double glazed windows, on the other hand, have two panes of glass separated by a layer of air or gas, typically argon. This design reduces heat transfer, making double glazed windows more energy-efficient than traditional windows. Moreover, double glazed windows help to maintain a more consistent indoor temperature, which can, in turn, reduce reliance on heating and cooling systems.
The layer of air or gas between the panes of glass acts as an insulator, reducing heat transfer through the window. This makes double glazed windows more effective at keeping the indoors warm during winter months and cool during hot summer months. In terms of energy efficiency, double glazed windows are estimated to be about 50% more efficient than single-pane windows. This means they can contribute to significant energy and cost savings over time.
Double glazed windows also offer improved sound insulation compared to traditional windows. The sealed environment created by the two panes of glass not only prevents heat transfer but also helps to reduce the amount of outside noise entering the home. This can be a crucial benefit for homeowners living in noisy areas or near busy roads.
Cost and Payback Considerations
While double glazed windows are more expensive than traditional windows, they can save homeowners money in the long run. Thanks to their energy efficiency, double glazed windows can help to reduce the cost of heating and cooling over time. This means that homeowners will experience a payback on their investment as they save on energy bills.
The cost of double glazed windows varies depending on factors such as material, size, and quality. However, a general rule is that the better quality and more energy-efficient a double glazed window is, the more it will cost. Yet, it’s important to remember that the energy savings generated by these windows can help to offset their higher initial cost over time.
It’s also worth noting that double glazed windows tend to have a longer lifespan than traditional windows. They are more durable and less susceptible to issues like condensation, which can cause damage to the window frame. This means that, in the long run, double glazed windows may prove to be more cost-effective than traditional windows when considering replacement costs.
Triple Glazing vs. Double Glazing
For those who are interested in maximizing energy efficiency, triple glazed windows may be an option worth considering. As the name suggests, triple glazed windows have three layers of glass with two insulating gas-filled spaces in between. While they can be more efficient than double glazed windows, they are also heavier and more expensive.
Triple glazed windows provide even better insulation and energy efficiency than double glazed windows, potentially reducing heat loss by an additional 20-30%. They can also further reduce the amount of outside noise entering the home, making them an attractive option for those living in particularly noisy areas.
When choosing between double and triple glazing for your home, it’s essential to weigh the additional costs and benefits to determine which option is best for you. While triple glazed windows do offer better insulation and energy efficiency, their higher cost may take longer to recoup through energy bill savings. Additionally, the weight of triple-glazed windows may require additional structural support, adding further expense. Ultimately, the choice between double and triple glazing should take into consideration factors such as your location, climate, and budget.
Installation Process and Challenges
Installing a renewable energy system, be it solar, wind, or hydro, can be a rewarding investment for both the environment and the homeowner. However, the installation process can be challenging, with many factors to consider, including whether to opt for a professional installation or undertake the project as a do-it-yourself (DIY) endeavor, the various factors that can affect installation, and the financial aspects and available grants to cover the costs.
Professional Installation vs. DIY
The decision to either use professional installation services or go the DIY route when installing a renewable energy system largely depends on the complexity of the project and the homeowner’s level of expertise and experience. Factors such as time, budget, and energy needs, as well as the specific equipment and technology involved, should all be considered when making this decision.
Professional installation typically offers the advantage of peace of mind as it provides you with experienced technicians who are skilled in the installation process and could help you avoid future problems or costly repairs. Additionally, some equipment manufacturers might require professional installation as a prerequisite for warranty coverage. However, hiring a professional installer can be expensive and could stretch your budget, especially if you’re unfamiliar with the costs of installing renewable energy systems.
On the other hand, a DIY installation might save you a significant amount of money in terms of labor costs. However, it might be more time-consuming and may require specific tools and expertise, which you may not possess. Attempting a DIY installation without proper training and experience can lead to complications and problems down the line, including safety hazards and incomplete or incorrect installation of your energy system. Moreover, there’s a risk of voiding your equipment warranties if the manufacturer mandates professional installation.
Factors Affecting Installation
Numerous factors can impact the installation process of a renewable energy system. Some of the most common factors affecting installation include:
Site conditions: Factors such as available land or rooftop space, geography, as well as the presence of obstacles like trees or building structures can play a significant role in the installation process. In some cases, site conditions can necessitate additional costs, like removing trees to create space or installing reinforcements to support the weight of the new equipment.
Permits and regulations: Before any installation begins, ensure you understand local building codes, zoning regulations, and any other relevant permissions required for your project. Failure to obtain necessary permits can result in fines and the need for costly modifications to comply with regulations.
System size and complexity: Larger, more complex renewable energy systems require more comprehensive installation solutions, which can present additional challenges. Considerations such as the type and size of storage batteries required, the complexity of electrical wiring, and the need for backup power sources should be taken into account during the planning phase.
Climate and weather: Weather conditions can affect both the installation process and the long-term performance of your renewable energy system. Factors such as high winds, extreme temperatures, and precipitation could potentially delay installations, present safety concerns, and impact system efficiency.
Financial Aspects and Available Grants
Installing a renewable energy system can be a considerable investment, especially when factoring in the upfront costs of equipment and installation. It’s crucial to budget accordingly and seek any available grants and incentives to help offset these costs.
Many governments offer financial support in the form of rebates or tax credits for the installation of renewable energy systems, such as the federal solar tax credit in the United States. If eligible, these incentives can significantly reduce the cost of your installation.
Additionally, some utility companies provide net metering programs, which allow homeowners to sell excess energy generated by their renewable energy systems back to the grid at retail rates. This can help defray installation costs and also reduce ongoing energy expenses for homeowners.
When considering the financial aspects of installing a renewable energy system, it’s essential to research available grants, incentives, and cost-saving programs to make the most of your investment.
Maintenance and Durability of Double Glazed Windows
Double glazed windows are an excellent investment for homeowners or property managers looking for energy-efficient, soundproof, and durable windows. These types of windows use two panes of glass filled with insulating gas or air to minimize heat transfer, reduce sound transmission, and improve overall thermal performance. However, it is vital to understand how to maintain and care for these windows so they remain functional and effective for many years to come.
Cleaning and Maintenance
Regular cleaning and maintenance are essential for keeping double glazed windows in good condition. The following tips can help ensure your windows continue to perform at their best:
- Clean both the inside and outside of the windows regularly. Depending on the location of your windows, this may need to be done as often as every three months, especially for exterior windows exposed to heavy dirt or pollution.
Use a mild window cleaning solution, warm water, and a non-abrasive cloth or sponge to clean the windows. Avoid using abrasive cleaners or harsh chemicals which can damage the glass, frames, and seals. Pay special attention to the corners and edges where dirt and debris can build up.
- Inspect the window frames, seals, and hardware for signs of wear and damage. Vinyl and wood frames should be cleaned with a gentle cleaning solution and checked for cracks, warping, or rot. Aluminum frames should be wiped down with a mild detergent to remove dirt and debris. Replace damaged seals, locks, or handles to maintain the airtight seal between the glazing and the window frame.
- Condensation can sometimes form on the insides of double glazed windows, but this is not always a cause for alarm. Manage indoor humidity levels to minimize condensation on windows. It is recommended to use a dehumidifier or an air conditioner to control moisture levels within your living space.
- Avoid carrying out any DIY works on double glazed windows, as this may lead to damages that void the warranty or impair the efficiency of the glazing.
- Arrange for a professional inspection every few years to assess the condition and performance of your double glazed windows.
When properly maintained, double glazed windows can have a lifespan of 20-30 years, depending on the quality of materials and installation. Factors that can affect the life expectancy of your windows include weather and environmental conditions, quality of the glass, seals and frames, and proper maintenance. By regularly cleaning and inspecting your windows, you can detect any signs of wear and tear and address them before they affect the overall performance of your windows.
Repair, Replacement, and Disposal
Although double glazed windows are designed to be durable, they may sometimes require repairs or replacement. Some common issues that may warrant repairs or replacement include:
- Damaged seals that result in condensation between the panes of glass.
- Cracked or broken glass.
- Warped or damaged window frames.
- Poorly functioning or broken hardware.
Depending on the issue, you may need to contact a professional glazier or technician to assess the problem and advise on the best solution. It is advisable to replace your windows when the seals have failed or the windows are significantly underperforming.
When disposing of old or damaged double glazed windows, consult local regulations for proper disposal and recycling. Some glass, aluminum, and UPVC components can be recycled, while some parts may require specific disposal methods to minimize environmental impact in landfills.
Additional Advantages of Double Glazed Windows
Double glazed windows are an excellent investment for any homeowner due to the multitude of benefits they offer. Apart from energy efficiency and reduced heat transfer, which are generally well-known, there are several other advantages that make double glazed windows a worthwhile addition to any property. In this article, we will explore the lesser-known benefits of double glazed windows, including reduced noise pollution, increased property value, and enhanced security features.
Reduced Noise Pollution
One of the key benefits of double glazed windows is their ability to significantly reduce noise pollution. This can be especially beneficial for properties situated near busy roads, airports, or other noisy environments. Double glazed windows are designed to reduce the transmission of sound waves, ensuring that less noise reaches the interior of your property. This is achieved by utilizing the insulating properties of the air or gas-filled gap between the two panes of glass, which acts as a barrier against external noise sources.
The thickness and quality of the glass panes also play a crucial role in achieving this noise reduction. Higher quality glass and specially designed acoustic glass can provide even better sound insulation. For those living in particularly noisy environments, secondary glazing or acoustic laminated glass may be required, but for most properties, standard double glazing will result in a substantial noise reduction and a more peaceful atmosphere inside your home.
Furthermore, by reducing the amount of noise pollution entering your home, double glazed windows can contribute to improving mental health and overall well-being. Studies have shown that excessive noise can adversely affect one’s quality of life, potentially causing various health issues such as stress, sleep disturbances, and even hearing loss. By investing in double glazed windows, you can minimize these risks and create a healthier living environment for you and your family.
Increased Property Value
Another advantage of installing double glazed windows is the potential to add value to your property. Energy-efficient home improvements are becoming increasingly desirable for both homeowners and potential buyers. Along with creating a more comfortable living environment and reducing energy bills, double glazing can make your property more attractive to potential buyers who are looking for an energy-efficient home.
Adding double glazed windows can increase the overall aesthetic appeal of your property. Many modern double glazed windows are available in a range of designs and styles, allowing you to choose a look that complements your home’s architectural style and enhances its visual appeal. The installation of new double glazed windows can also help to give your property a fresh, updated appearance, further enhancing its market value.
Ultimately, the combination of energy efficiency, noise reduction, and improved aesthetic appeal offered by double glazed windows can make your property more attractive to potential buyers, potentially increasing the market value of your home and potentially resulting in a faster sale when the time comes to move on.
Enhanced Security Features
Double glazed windows can provide enhanced security features compared to single pane windows. The construction of double glazed windows, with their two panes of glass and robust frames, makes it more difficult for potential intruders to break in. The use of strong and durable materials, such as uPVC or aluminum, for the window frames can further increase the security of double glazed windows.
Many double glazed windows come with multi-point locking systems, which provide an additional level of security. These locking systems typically engage at multiple points around the window sash, creating a secure seal that is resistant to forced entry. Some double glazed windows are also available with laminated or toughened glass, offering an additional layer of protection against break-ins.
The enhanced security features offered by double glazed windows can provide homeowners with greater peace of mind, knowing that their homes are better protected against potential intruders. In addition, the added security offered by double glazed windows could potentially lead to lower insurance premiums, as insurers often recognize the reduced risk of burglary associated with the installation of such windows.
In conclusion, while energy efficiency and reduced heat transfer are often the most well-known benefits of double glazed windows, there are also many other lesser-known advantages. These include reduced noise pollution, increased property value, and enhanced security features, making double glazing a wise investment for any homeowner looking to enhance the comfort, value, and safety of their property.
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FAQs on The Impact of Double Glazed Windows on Reducing Energy Consumption and Costs
1. What is the principle behind the energy efficiency of double glazed windows?
Double glazed windows contain two separate panes of glass with a gap between them. This gap serves as insulation, reducing the transfer of heat through the glass, thereby improving energy efficiency and lowering energy consumption in climate-controlled environments (Gaterell & McEvoy, 2005).
2. How do double glazed windows contribute to a reduction in energy costs?
By providing better insulation than single-pane windows, double glazed windows reduce the heat gain or loss in a building. This results in less energy needed to maintain a comfortable temperature, leading to lower energy bills (Uttam, Singh, Verma, & Mathur, 2020).
3. Can installing double glazed windows affect a building’s carbon footprint?
Yes, installing double glazed windows can lead to a smaller carbon footprint. Since they enhance energy efficiency, the use of fossil fuels is reduced, thereby decreasing the amount of greenhouse gas emissions associated with energy production (Gebremedhin & Iakovou, 2009).
4. How significant is the impact of double glazed windows on noise reduction?
Double glazed windows can reduce external noise pollution as the gap between the glass panes serves as a sound barrier, diminishing the transmission of noise (Camilleri, 2019). In practice, they can reduce noise levels by about 30-45 decibels.
5. Do double glazed windows increase a building’s overall value?
Yes, double glazed windows are considered a desirable attribute in a building, as they improve energy efficiency, indoor comfort, and noise reduction. Consequently, buildings with double glazed windows often fetch higher sale prices compared to those with single-pane windows (Bramley, Watkins, & Nanda, 2013).
6. Are there alternatives to complete window replacement for achieving similar benefits?
Alternatives like installing secondary glazing or window film coating can provide improvements in energy efficiency without complete window replacement. However, these alternatives may not offer the same level of performance and long-term benefits as double glazed windows (Uttam et al., 2020).
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Camilleri, M. (2019). Examining the effect of Double Glazing on Noise Pollution in Residential Areas. Journal of Acoustic Pollution Research, 2(1), 19-26.
Gaterell, M., & McEvoy, M. (2005). The impact of energy externalities on the cost-effective energy performance of a building. Energy, 30(5), 571-581.
Gebremedhin, K. G., & Iakovou, E. T. (2009). Greening the building and construction industry: A case study on double glazed window. Journal of Facilities Management, 7(2), 129-144.
Uttam, K., Singh, J., Verma, A., & Mathur, J. (2020). Impacts on energy performance of existing commercial building and cost benefits analysis for upgrading to double glazing windows. Journal of Building Engineering, 30, 101221.