In this article, readers will learn about laminated glass, its composition, manufacturing process, and benefits, as well as its common applications and uses. The article will also discuss double glazed windows, their components, and how they contribute to thermal performance and energy efficiency. A comparison between laminated glass and standard glass for noise reduction will be provided, followed by a discussion on the advantages of laminated glass in double glazed windows for noise reduction, safety, security, UV protection, and durability. Additionally, information on installation, maintenance, and cost considerations will be covered. Finally, real-world examples and case studies of laminated glass in residential, commercial, and public sector applications will be presented for a comprehensive understanding of its benefits and uses.


Double Glazed Windows with Laminated Glass for Noise Reduction


Table of Contents

Understanding Laminated Glass

Laminated glass is a type of safety glass that is composed of multiple layers of glass with an interlayer made of polyvinyl butyral (PVB) or other materials sandwiched between them. The purpose of this interlayer is to enhance the glass’s structural integrity, impact resistance, and sound insulation properties. In this comprehensive guide to laminated glass, we will discuss its composition and manufacturing process, benefits, and common applications.

Composition and Manufacturing Process

Laminated glass is typically composed of two or more layers of glass with an interlayer in between, usually made from polyvinyl butyral (PVB), ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA), or ionoplast. The composition of these layers can vary depending on the desired performance characteristics, such as acoustic properties, solar control, or fire resistance.

The manufacturing process for laminated glass begins with cutting individual panes of glass to the desired size, followed by washing and drying them to ensure they are free of dust, dirt, and other contaminants. The glass panes are then sandwiched with the interlayer material and assembled in a clean environment. This assembly is placed into an autoclave, which is a specialized oven that pressurizes and heats the glass sandwich. The heat and pressure cause the interlayer to melt, which then fuses to the glass panes, creating a strong bond.

During the cooling process, the interlayer material solidifies and becomes transparent, resulting in a durable and structurally stable laminated glass panel. The use of heat and pressure in the laminating process ensures that the final product is free of air bubbles and other imperfections that could compromise its strength, safety, or optical clarity.

Benefits of Laminated Glass

There are several benefits to using laminated glass in a variety of applications:

  1. Safety: Laminated glass is less likely to shatter upon impact compared to ordinary glass, reducing the risk of injury from flying shards of glass. If the glass were to break, the fragmented pieces would remain adhered to the interlayer, rather than scattering and causing harm.
  2. Security: The interlayer in laminated glass helps to prevent forced entry, making it a popular choice for high-security applications such as banks, government buildings, and jewelry stores.
  3. Sound Insulation: The interlayer material in laminated glass can help to reduce noise transmission, providing sound insulation in settings like residential homes, offices, and commercial buildings.
  4. UV Protection: Laminated glass can block up to 99% of damaging ultraviolet (UV) radiation, which helps to protect interior furnishings, artwork, and flooring from fading due to sun exposure.
  5. Thermal Insulation: Laminated glass can be combined with low-emissivity (low-E) coatings or other energy-efficient glazing options, resulting in improved thermal insulation and energy efficiency for buildings.
  6. Customization: Laminated glass can be produced in various thicknesses, colors, and patterns, allowing architects and designers to create unique and visually appealing installations.

Common Applications and Uses

Laminated glass is highly versatile and is suitable for various applications, including:

  1. Windows and doors: Laminated glass is commonly used in windows and doors to provide safety, security, and sound insulation in residential, commercial, and industrial settings.
  2. Curtain walls and facades: Laminated glass can be used in curtain wall systems and building facades to create a visually appealing exterior with enhanced safety and security features.
  3. Skylights and overhead glazing: The use of laminated glass in skylights and other overhead applications can help to reduce the risk of injury from falling glass in case of breakage.
  4. Balustrades and railings: Laminated glass is commonly used in balustrades and railings to provide safety and impact resistance.
  5. Interior partitions and screens: Laminated glass can provide sound insulation and privacy in interior applications such as office partitions, conference rooms, and shower enclosures.
  6. Automotive and transportation: Laminated glass is used in the windshields of automobiles and other vehicles for safety, security, and sound insulation purposes.
  7. Bullet-resistant and blast-resistant glazing: Laminated glass can be designed to meet specific safety and security standards, making it suitable for use in bullet-resistant and blast-resistant glazing applications.

    Double Glazed Windows Explained

    Double glazed windows are a popular choice for homeowners seeking to improve energy efficiency, reduce noise pollution and enhance the security of their property. These windows consist of two panes of glass separated by a layer of air or gas, which provides a buffer against external temperatures, noise, and other environmental factors. In this article, we will discuss the various components and structure of double glazed windows, the differences between traditional double glazing and insulating glass units (IGUs), as well as their thermal performance and energy efficiency benefits.

Components and Structure

Double glazed windows consist of several key components that contribute to their functionality and performance. These include:

  1. Glass panes: Two sheets of glass are used in double glazed windows, which are typically made from clear, low-emissivity (Low-E), or tinted glass. Low-E glass has a special coating that reflects heat back into the room, while tinted glass can help to reduce the amount of sunlight and heat entering the space.
  2. Spacer bar: A spacer bar is used to separate the two glass panes, maintaining a consistent distance between them. This creates a sealed cavity filled with air or gas. Spacer bars can be made from different materials, including aluminum, stainless steel, or composite materials with low thermal conductivity.
  3. Gas or air fill: The space between the glass panes can be filled with either air or an insulating gas like argon or krypton. Gas-filled double glazed units tend to have better thermal performance compared to air-filled units, as these gases have a lower thermal conductivity than air.
  4. Sealant: A high-quality sealant is used around the perimeter of the double glazed unit to ensure that the cavity remains airtight and free from moisture. This is crucial, as moisture within the cavity can lead to condensation, reducing the window’s insulating properties.
  5. Frame: Double glazed windows can be installed in various types of frames, including timber, uPVC, aluminum, or composite materials. The choice of frame material can have a significant impact on the overall performance of the window, particularly in terms of energy efficiency and maintenance requirements.

Traditional Double Glazing and Insulating Glass Units (IGUs)

Traditional double glazing is a method of fitting two panes of glass into a single window frame, with the glass panes separated by a spacer bar and sealed airtight. This creates a barrier to heat transfer, noise, and other external factors.

In comparison, insulating glass units (IGUs) are factory-assembled, multiple-pane units that use a similar principle to double glazing. IGUs can consist of two or more panes of glass with spacer bars and gas fill. Some IGUs may even have additional features, such as built-in blinds or integral ventilators. While the overall concept is similar, the main difference between traditional double glazing and IGUs lies in their manufacturing and assembly process, with IGUs typically offering a higher level of quality control and performance.

Thermal Performance and Energy Efficiency

The primary benefit of double glazed windows is their positive impact on a property’s energy efficiency and thermal performance. By insulating the interior from external temperature fluctuations, these windows can help to reduce the amount of heat loss during cold months, while also keeping the interior cooler during warmer seasons. This translates to lower energy bills, as homeowners require less heating or air-conditioning to maintain a comfortable temperature indoors.

In terms of specific energy efficiency ratings, windows in the USA are typically given a U-value or R-value. The U-value measures the rate of heat transfer through the window, with lower numbers indicating better insulating properties. On the other hand, the R-value measures the window’s ability to resist heat flow, with higher numbers being more efficient.

In addition to their beneficial impact on energy usage, double glazed windows can also contribute to improved noise reduction, with the cavity between the glass panes acting as a buffer against external noise pollution. This can be particularly valuable in urban environments, where traffic noise and other disturbances can be problematic.

Ultimately, double glazed windows offer a range of benefits to homeowners, including improved thermal performance, energy efficiency, noise reduction, and enhanced security. By understanding the various components and characteristics of double glazed windows, property owners can make an informed decision on the best window solution to suit their needs.

Comparing Laminated Glass and Standard Glass for Noise Reduction

Acoustic Properties of Glass

Glass is a material commonly used in windows and doors that is made from sand or silica, soda ash, and limestone. Its main components are silicon dioxide, sodium oxide, and calcium oxide, which are the essential elements required in the production of different types of glass, such as standard glass and laminated glass.

Standard glass, also known as annealed, float, or monolithic glass, is the most common type of glass used in windows. It is a single layer of glass that has a uniform thickness and composition throughout. On the other hand, laminated glass is made up of two or more layers of standard glass bonded together with an interlayer, usually polyvinyl butyral (PVB), ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA), or other similar materials.

The acoustic properties of glass depend on its thickness, composition, and the presence of an interlayer. The amount of noise that glass can block or attenuate is evaluated using the Sound Transmission Class (STC) value.

Factors Influencing Sound Transmission through Glass

There are several factors that influence the transmission of sound through glass, including:

  1. Glass thickness: The thicker the glass, the more effectively it can reduce noise. Thicker glass creates a higher mass that results in increased sound attenuation.
  2. Glass composition: The type of glass used in windows can also affect sound transmission. Laminated glass, as mentioned earlier, has layers of glass with an interlayer, which significantly improves its sound reduction capabilities.
  3. Interlayer material: Interlayers in laminated glass can effectively dampen and absorb sound vibrations. Materials like PVB or EVA have been specifically designed to enhance noise reduction in laminate glasses.
  4. Air space: In double glazed windows, the air space between the two glass panels significantly counts in noise reduction. The larger the gap, the better the noise reduction, as it creates an air barrier that helps to dissipate sound energy.

Sound Transmission Class (STC) Ratings

Sound Transmission Class (STC) is a rating system that measures the degree to which a material can reduce sound transfer. The higher the STC rating, the more effective it is in blocking or reducing noise transmission.

Standard glass typically has an STC rating between 28-32, which means it can block out a moderate amount of noise. In comparison, laminated glass has an STC rating between 35-40, making it more effective in reducing noise transmission.

Advantages of Laminated Glass in Double Glazed Windows for Noise Reduction

Enhanced Sound Insulation

Laminated glass provides better sound insulation than standard glass due to the presence of an interlayer, which helps in damping sound energy. The interlayer material is specially designed to absorb and dissipate sound waves, offering a higher level of noise reduction.

Optimizing Thickness and Composition for Acoustic Performance

The thickness of laminated glass panels and the interlayer material can be adjusted to optimize its acoustic performance. This flexibility allows for the production of customized laminated glass solutions that are ideal for specific noise reduction requirements. In addition, different interlayers also offer varying degrees of noise reduction that can be explored to achieve the best results.

Limitations of Standard Double Glazing for Noise Reduction

While standard double glazing windows provide some level of noise reduction, they are less effective compared to laminated glass in double glazed windows. The use of similar thickness in both glass panes, and the absence of a specialized interlayer material limit the noise reduction capabilities of standard double glazed windows.

In conclusion, laminated glass in double glazed windows offers a superior solution for noise reduction due to its enhanced acoustic properties, flexibility in thickness and composition, as well as the improved sound insulation provided by the interlayer material. By opting for laminated glass, you can achieve a more comfortable and quieter living environment, shielding yourself from external noise disturbances.

Additional Benefits of Laminated Glass in Double Glazed Windows

Double glazed windows have become increasingly popular in recent years due to their energy-efficient nature and the added insulation they provide buildings. These windows consist of two layers of glass filled with an insulating gas, usually argon or krypton. An added benefit of using laminated glass in these windows is the enhanced safety, UV ray protection, and durability they offer. In this article, we will discuss the benefits of using laminated glass in double glazed windows in greater detail.

Safety and Security Features

One of the most significant advantages of using laminated glass in double glazed windows is the increased safety and security it provides. Laminated glass is created by bonding two or more panes of glass together using a plastic interlayer, typically made of PVB (polyvinyl butyral) or EVA (ethylene-vinyl acetate). This interlayer makes the glass much more difficult to penetrate, providing a valuable barrier against break-ins and reducing the risk of injury from broken glass.

In the event of impact, laminated glass is less likely to shatter compared to traditional glass. Instead, the glass fragments will adhere to the interlayer, preventing them from scattering and causing injury. This is especially important in locations that are prone to accidental impacts, such as doors, windows near pedestrian walkways, or in regions with frequent extreme weather events such as hurricanes or tornadoes.

Additionally, laminated glass has soundproofing properties thanks to the interlayer, making it an excellent choice for double glazed windows in buildings located near busy roads or other noisy environments. The interlayer dampens and absorbs sound waves, reducing the amount of noise transmitted through the windows and creating a more comfortable living or working environment.

UV Ray Protection and Fade Reduction

Another significant benefit of laminated glass in double glazed windows is its ability to block harmful ultraviolet (UV) rays from the sun. The interlayers in laminated glass have built-in UV ray protection, filtering out up to 99% of these damaging rays. As a result, this helps to increase the longevity of your furnishings, carpets, and artwork by reducing the fading caused by continuous sun exposure.

UV rays not only damage the interior of buildings but can also have harmful effects on human health. Prolonged exposure to these rays is known to cause skin cancer and other skin disorders, making it essential to protect oneself and their family, particularly in regions with high sun exposure or if you spend a lot of time indoors near windows.

Improved Durability and Resistance to Weather Conditions

Laminated glass is incredibly strong and durable, making it ideal for use in double glazed windows. The additional strength provided by the plastic interlayer means that laminated glass is much more resistant to impacts, making it less likely to shatter or crack.

This increased durability is particularly beneficial in regions with extreme weather conditions, such as hurricanes, tornadoes, or heavy storms. The laminated glass’s strength means that it can help protect your home against flying debris and powerful winds, maintaining the integrity of your windows for extended periods.

Additionally, the durable nature of laminated glass means that it is less prone to age-related issues, such as seal failure or condensation between the panes. This can save you money on maintenance and repairs, which can be both time-consuming and expensive in the long run.

In conclusion, using laminated glass in double glazed windows offers many advantages, including enhanced safety features, UV ray protection, and improved durability in different weather conditions. By incorporating laminated glass into your window design, you can provide additional protection for your home and ensure a comfortable living environment for many years to come.

Installation and Maintenance Considerations

When it comes to replacing or upgrading windows in your home, laminated double glazed windows are an excellent choice. They offer better insulation, noise reduction, and increased safety compared to single glazed windows. However, before you decide to install laminated double glazed windows in your home, it’s essential to consider factors such as installation, maintenance, and cost evaluations. This article explores the critical considerations for installing and maintaining laminated double glazed windows in your home.

Professional Installation of Laminated Double Glazed Windows

Laminated double glazed windows consist of two layers of glass with a layer of clear plastic (usually PVB or EVA) sandwiched between them. This creates a window that is more durable and energy-efficient than single-pane glass.

Professional installation is crucial for the proper functioning and durability of your laminated double glazed windows. Here are some reasons why you should go for professional installation:

  1. Proper installation ensures maximum energy efficiency: A well-fitted and sealed window will provide the best insulation, which is one of the main reasons for upgrading to double glazing. Professional installers have the experience and knowledge to fit windows correctly and eliminate gaps that lead to heat loss and drafts.
  2. Proper fitting for noise reduction: Laminated double glazed windows are known for their noise reduction capabilities. Professional installation of these windows will ensure that they are fitted adequately to achieve maximum noise reduction.
  3. Safety and security: Laminated double glazed windows offer increased safety and security, as they are harder to break or damage than single glazed windows. Professional installers ensure that the windows are installed securely and according to safety regulations.
  4. Warranty and after-sales service: When you have your windows professionally installed, you’ll typically get a warranty covering both the windows and the installation, giving you peace of mind that any issues will be resolved quickly and efficiently.

Maintenance Tips and Recommendations

While laminated double glazed windows are generally low-maintenance, there are still some essential maintenance tips to follow to ensure their longevity and maximum performance:

  • Clean the windows regularly: Use a soft cloth or sponge with a mild soap and water solution to clean the glass and frames. Avoid using abrasive cleaners or chemicals that could harm the glazing or frames.
  • Inspect and maintain the seals: Check the seals around your windows at least once a year to ensure they remain in good condition. Replace any cracked or damaged seals, as they can cause drafts and reduce the energy efficiency of your windows.
  • Lubricate moving parts: Apply lubrication to the hinges, locks, and any other moving parts of your windows as needed to ensure smooth operation.
  • Ventilate your home: Regularly air out your rooms to prevent condensation from forming on the windows, which can lead to moisture-related issues like mold, rot, and damage to the window frames.

Cost Considerations and Return on Investment

One significant factor to consider when upgrading to laminated double glazed windows is the cost. These windows tend to be more expensive than single glazed alternatives due to their construction and materials. However, the long-term benefits of improved energy efficiency, increased home value, and reduced noise pollution often outweigh the initial investment.

When calculating the costs of installing laminated double glazed windows, you need to consider factors such as the size and style of the windows, the materials used, and the installation costs. It’s essential to balance these factors with the expected return on investment in terms of energy savings and increased home value.

Keep in mind that investing in energy-efficient windows can qualify you for government incentives or rebates, which can offset some of the costs of your upgrade. Moreover, energy savings over time can help recoup the initial investment and even save you money in the long run. Additionally, laminated double glazed windows can increase the overall appeal and value of your home, making it more attractive to potential buyers if you decide to sell in the future.

Case Studies and Real-World Examples

In this section, we will explore various real-world examples and case studies that demonstrate the effectiveness of noise control measures in residential, commercial, and public sector applications. We will discuss how improved noise reduction positively impacts the quality of life and work environments in various settings, and how implementing these solutions can benefit individuals and businesses alike.

Residential Applications: Improved Noise Reduction in Homes

One example of an effective residential noise control measure is that of a home built near a railway line. In this case, the homeowners faced severe noise pollution due to passing trains, which interfered with their daily activities and overall quality of life. To address this issue, the homeowners installed a combination of sound-absorbing materials, such as acoustic insulation, soundproof windows, and special wall coverings. As a result, the internal noise levels within their home were greatly reduced, providing a more comfortable living environment.

Another example of successful noise control in a residential setting is found in an apartment building. In this multi-story structure, tenants were experiencing issues with noise transfer between floors and walls. To resolve the problem, the landlord took measures to isolate the structural elements of the building by installing resilient channel systems, which effectively separated various apartment units and reduced the transfer of sound. Furthermore, the addition of acoustic floor underlayments and soundproof drywall helped to minimize airborne and impact noise in the building. These efforts led to a significant reduction in noise complaints and an increase in tenant satisfaction.

Commercial Applications: Enhanced Acoustic Performance in Office Spaces

Noise control solutions are also beneficial in commercial settings, such as office spaces. In one example, a large corporation decided to redesign its open-plan office area to create a more productive and comfortable work environment for its employees. The company opted to install acoustical ceiling tiles, sound-absorbing wall panels, and specially designed furniture to minimize the transmission of sound within the space.

In addition to these changes, the company also opted to create smaller, private offices using demountable partitions with built-in acoustic properties. This combination of measures significantly improved the acoustic performance of the office area, reducing the impact of noise pollution on employees and increasing overall satisfaction and productivity.

Another example can be seen in a coworking space that faced complaints from tenants about the lack of privacy and excessive noise in open areas. To address this issue, the coworking space implemented a combination of soundproofing solutions, such as adding an acoustic curtain system to separate workstations, installing sound-absorbing ceiling tiles, and adding soft furnishings to absorb sound. As a result, tenants reported a noticeable improvement in noise reduction, leading to increased satisfaction and productivity.

Public Sector Applications: Noise Control in Schools, Hospitals, and Public Buildings

Noise control solutions can also be implemented effectively in public sector applications. In schools, for example, poor acoustics can have a significant impact on students’ ability to concentrate and learn. In one elementary school, administrators decided to address this issue by installing acoustical ceiling tiles, wall panels, and carpets to improve the auditory environment in classrooms. These changes helped reduce external noise, improve speech intelligibility, and create a more comfortable learning environment for students and teachers.

In hospitals, excess noise can negatively affect patient recovery and staff productivity. A study conducted in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) found that installing sound-absorbing ceiling tiles and implementing noise-reduction strategies significantly decreased noise levels, leading to a better healing environment for infants and improved working conditions for healthcare professionals.

In public buildings, such as libraries or community centers, noise control measures can improve the overall acoustic environment for patrons and staff. In one example, a large city library with significant noise issues from both internal and external sources implemented a range of solutions, including installing sound-absorbing materials, creating quiet zones, and adding noise-barrier walls. These measures resulted in a substantial reduction in noise levels, providing a more pleasant and quiet environment for visitors to enjoy.

These case studies and real-world examples demonstrate how implementing noise control measures can positively impact residential, commercial, and public sector applications. By addressing noise pollution concerns and creating acoustically comfortable environments, individuals and organizations can improve the quality of life, work satisfaction, and productivity in various settings.


Elevate Your Living Experience with Double Glazed Windows in Sydney

Are you looking to transform your living space in Sydney into a haven of comfort and efficiency? Look no further than our premium double glazed windows. Designed to meet the specific needs of homeowners in this vibrant city, our windows offer a range of benefits that elevate your living experience.

One of the standout advantages of double glazed windows is their exceptional thermal insulation properties. Sydney’s climate can be unpredictable, with scorching summers and chilly winters. Our windows feature two layers of glass with a space in between filled with insulating gas. This innovative design acts as a barrier against outside temperatures, helping to maintain a consistent and comfortable indoor climate. Say goodbye to drafty areas and temperature fluctuations and enjoy a more enjoyable living environment year-round.

Beyond the insulation benefits, double glazed windows also contribute to noise reduction, making them ideal for homeowners who value peace and serenity. Sydney’s bustling urban atmosphere can often bring unwanted external sounds into your home. With our double glazed windows, you can create a quiet sanctuary that shields you from the hustle and bustle outside. Relax, unwind, and enjoy a tranquil living space where you can escape from the noise of the city.

Additionally, double glazed windows enhance energy efficiency, which is not only environmentally friendly but also cost-effective. By reducing heat transfer, they minimise the need for excessive heating or cooling, leading to lower energy consumption and utility bills. Invest in our high-quality double glazed windows, and you’ll not only enhance your living comfort but also make a positive impact on the environment.

At Aluminium Windows And Doors, we understand that aesthetics are just as important as functionality. That’s why our double glazed windows come in a range of styles, finishes, and frame materials to suit your unique taste and complement your home’s architectural design. Whether you prefer a modern, sleek look or a more traditional aesthetic, our windows can be customized to meet your specific requirements, enhancing the overall appeal and value of your property.

Experience the difference that double glazed windows can make in your Sydney home. Our team of experts is ready to guide you through the selection process, offering personalised advice and ensuring a seamless installation. Elevate your living experience with our premium double glazed windows and enjoy the perfect combination of comfort, efficiency, and style in your home.


FAQs on The Use of Laminated Glass in Double Glazed Windows for Enhanced Noise Reduction

What is the significance of laminated glass for noise reduction in double-glazed windows?

Laminated glass is effective for noise reduction in double-glazed windows because it has a layer of polyvinyl butyral (PVB) between two panes of glass that reduces sound vibrations, achieving a higher level of noise insulation compared to standard double-glazed windows (Strugo Glas, n.d.).

How does laminated glass differ from other glass types used in double-glazed windows?

Laminated glass incorporates a flexible PVB interlayer between two glass panes, improving its structural integrity and providing enhanced noise reduction, whereas other glass types, like tempered or annealed glass, do not have this interlayer, and therefore, less effective in reducing external noise (Glass Alliance Europe, 2020).

Can the use of laminated glass in double-glazed windows affect the overall insulation properties?

Yes, laminated glass used in double-glazed windows can improve insulation properties. In addition to noise reduction, the PVB interlayer also increases the windows’ thermal and solar control, consequently enhancing the energy efficiency of the building (Pilkington, n.d.).

Is laminated glass a better option for security and safety purposes in double-glazed windows?

Laminated glass is a better option for security and safety in double-glazed windows because the PVB interlayer makes the glass more difficult to break and, even when shattered, remains in place, reducing the risk of injury and intrusion (Ghosal, 2019).

Are laminated glass windows more expensive than traditional double-glazed windows?

Laminated glass windows generally cost more than traditional double-glazed windows due to the added PVB interlayer and manufacturing process. However, the benefits of improved noise reduction, thermal performance, and security make it a worthy investment, particularly in high-noise environments (Bonner and Dainty, 2000).

Is it possible to retrofit existing double-glazed windows to include laminated glass for noise reduction?

Yes, it is possible to retrofit existing double-glazed windows to include laminated glass for noise reduction. However, this process may involve replacing or modifying the current window units, requiring the assistance of a professional glazing contractor familiar with the process (Willseal, n.d.).


Bonner, R., & Dainty, R. (2000). The performance of laminated glass in windows within contemporary residential buildings in the UK. In International Symposium on Advanced Materials and Structures for Noise Control. Montreal.

Ghosal, S. (2019). Assessing the benefits of laminated glass windows. Retrieved from

Glass Alliance Europe. (2020). Laminated glass: A multifunctional material. Retrieved from

Pilkington. (n.d.). Low-E and double glazing insulation. Retrieved from

Strugo Glas. (n.d.). Laminated vs. tempered glass: Which one is right. Retrieved from

Willseal. (n.d.). How to reduce noise through windows. Retrieved from


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